What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that causes chronic inflammation of joints. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) tends to begin slowly with minor symptoms that come and go, usually on both sides of the body, and progress over a period of weeks or months. Symptoms of this chronic disease vary from person to person and can change from day to day. Bouts of disease activity are called flare-ups, and inactive periods are called remission.
You may feel unusually fatigued well before any other symptoms become obvious. Fatigue can precede the onset of other symptoms by weeks or months. It may come and go from week to week or day to day. Fatigue is sometimes accompanied by a general feeling of ill health or even depression.
Morning stiffness is often an early sign of arthritis. Stiffness that lasts for a few minutes is usually a symptom of a degenerative form of arthritis. Stiffness that lasts for several hours is generally a symptom of inflammatory arthritis and is typical of RA. You may also feel stiffness after any period of prolonged inactivity like napping or sitting.
Stiffness in one or more of the smaller joints is a common early sign of RA. This can occur at any time of day, whether you are active or not. Typically, stiffness begins in the joints of the hands. It usually comes on slowly, although it can come on suddenly and affect multiple joints over the course of one or two days.
Joint stiffness is often followed by joint tenderness or pain during movement or while at rest. This also affects both sides of the body equally. In early RA, the most common sites for pain are the fingers and wrists. You may also experience pain in your knees, feet, ankles, or shoulders.
Minor joint swelling
Mild inflammation of the joints is typical early on, causing your joints to appear bigger than normal. This swelling can also cause joints to feel warm to the touch.
Flare-ups can last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks, and this pattern can be expected to increase with time. Subsequent flare-ups may be felt in the same joints or in other joints.
When accompanied by other symptoms like joint pain and inflammation, a low-grade fever may be an early warning sign that you have RA. However, a fever higher than 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) is more likely to be a sign of some other form of illness or an infection.
Numbness and tingling
Inflammation of tendons can create pressure on your nerves. This may cause numbness, tingling, or a burning feeling in your hands referred to as carpal tunnel syndrome. The joints of your hands or feet may even produce a squeak or crackling noise as damaged cartilage grinds against joints when you move.
Decrease in range of motion
Inflammation in your joints can cause tendons and ligaments to become unstable or deformed. As the disease progresses, you may find yourself unable to bend or straighten some joints. Although your range of motion may also be affected by pain, it’s important to engage in regular, gentle exercise.
Other early symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
During the early states of RA, you may feel a variety of symptoms, including:
general weakness or a feeling of malaise
dry, itchy, or inflamed eyes
chest pain when you breathe (pleurisy)
hard bumps of tissue under the skin on your arms
loss of appetite